SAME-SEX UNIONS WORLD-WIDE:
A HISTORY IGNORED BY OPPONENTS OF GAY MARRIAGE
Preliminary Survey (2004) by
D. Michael Quinn
Beinecke Senior Fellow
Yale University, 2002-03

About 1600 B.C. (by the most conservative dating) in Iraq, an unknown poet began the Sumerian epic poem of Gilgamesh, which indicated a homoerotic dimension of his union with male friend, Enkidu.
Gilgamesh had a dream of his embracing a shooting star, a term in the original language which could be a play-on-words for a male wearing a woman's headdress. His mother, a priestess, said the dream predicted meeting a man, and "you will love him as a woman" or "like a wife." After they met, the two men were inseparable and declined to have relationships with females. When Enkidu died, Gilgamesh prepared his friend's body for burial "as one veils the bride."
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Although ancient Greek society preferred that male-male sexual activities should be between married men and teenage boys, there were also examples of permanent unions between adult males:
For example in 514 B.C., two warrior-lovers died in battle to make Athens a democracy. Plato later wrote:
"Our own tyrants learned this lesson through bitter experience when the love between [the warriors] Aristogiton and Harmodius grew so strong that it shattered their power. Wherever therefore, it has been established that it is shameful to be involved in sexual relationships [of men] with men, this is due to evil on the part of legislators, to despotism on the part of the rulers, and to cowardice on the part of the governed."
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About 378 B.C., historian Xenophon noted that in several parts of Greece (including militant Sparta) "man and boy live together, like married people."
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338 B.C. in Greece, the battle deaths of the entire army of Thebes, known as the "Theban Band," who went to war as 150 couples of warrior-lovers. Earlier generations of this "army of lovers" had defended their city for forty years.
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Sometime during the 900-years of China's Zhou period, which ended in 256 B.C., a writer described male lovers Pan Zhang and Wang Zhongxian:
"They fell in love at first sight and were as affectionate as husband and wife, sharing the same coverlet and pillow with unbounded intimacy for one another.
"Afterwards they died together and everyone mourned them. When they were buried together at Lofu Mountain..."
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About 85 A.D. in Italy, the poet Martial wrote:

The bearded Callistratus married the rugged Afer
Under the same law by which a woman takes a husband.
Torches were carried before him, a bridal veil covered his face,
Nor was the hymn to you, O god of marriage, omitted.


Martial also added this comment about male-male unions:
"Then, whomsoever you may love,
Be his friend too."
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110 A.D.. in Italy, Juvenal wrote that it was "nothing special" in Rome when "a friend is marrying another man and a small group attending."
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263 A.D.. in China, death of 53-year-old poet Ruan Ji, whose male lover Xi Kang had died a year earlier at age 39. Their union was later memorialized with stone portraits showing them sitting side-by-side.
Before his death, the poet composed a tribute to centuries-earlier male couples he called "blossom boys," which concluded:
Hand in hand they shared love's rapture,
Sharing coverlets and bedclothes.
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During the sixth century A.D.. in Japan, "two adult, aristocratic males" were buried in the same coffin. This is consistent with medieval stories that in some cases, after the death of a Samurai warrior, his male lover killed himself in order to remain at his companion's side.
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776 A.D.. in Italy, a written pact between two Christian lovers:
"Be it known that I, Rachifrid, a cleric,...do by this document establish, confirm and appoint you, Magniprand, a cleric,...to share my dwelling all the days of our lives... [and that] you should therein be my partner."
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About 1100 in Greece, this is the beginning of the Eastern Orthodox Christian ceremony of "The Order for Uniting Two Men," as follows:
"Placing them before the altar, the deacon shall say these decanal prayers:
"In peace, we pray to the Lord.
"For heavenly [peace],
"For the peace of all,
"For the joining together in union of love and life, we pray to the Lord."

The text of this ceremony is several printed pages, and similar documents were written in Greece and Serbia until the 1600s. Same-sex ceremonies continued in Balkan Christian churches until the late-1800s.
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Before his 1476 death in Italy, Catholic priest Giacomo della Marca (who became a saint) counseled with a young man in a rural town who "had been married `like a woman' to another man, and produced the ring that was the symbol of their union."
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1482 in Japan, writer Ijiri Chusuke praised the tradition of sexual unions between Samurai warriors:
"...lovers would swear perfect and eternal love, relying on no more than their mutual goodwill."
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When their relationship was discovered in Florence, Italy, 22-year-old Carlo and his older male lover said that several years earlier they had "ritually solemnized their union by swearing an oath over a Bible on an altar [in the chapel], and even the officials who condemned them in 1497 appear to have considered the two married....regardless of the illicit nature of their sexual union." Although the death penalty was possible, the Florentine court fined the older man and punished the younger man with a fine and two-year exile.
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1542 in Japan, 22-year-old Samurai warrior Takeda signed a contract with his 16-year-old Samurai boyfriend Kasuga, pledging sexual monogamy. Each agreed: "If I should ever break these promises, may I receive the divine punishment..."
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In 1542 Spanish priest Bartolome de Las Casas (who defended the Indians against false accusations) also acknowledged that the Maya parents of southern Mexico commonly acquired young men as lovers for their sons. Conquistador Juan de Torquemada later observed that this relationship was honored the same as "the condition of marriage."
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1581 in Italy, after recording the Pope's meeting with Portugal's ambassador, Montaigne's travel diary noted that he was informed that in Rome's cathedral of St. John Lateran, "a few years before [now,] certain Portuguese had entered into a strange brotherhood. They married one another, male to male, at Mass, with the same ceremonies with which we perform our marriages, read the same marriage gospel service, and then went to bed and lived together."
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1609 in Florida, Spanish explorer Juan de Torquemada wrote that effeminate male Indians entered into marriages with men.
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1623 in England, twelve years after the publication of the English bible he had authorized, 57-year-old King James I wrote to 30-year-old George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham:
"...praying God that I may have a joyful and comfortable meeting with you and that we may make at this Christmas a new marriage ever to be kept hereafter; for, God so love me, as I desire only to live in this world for your sake, and that I had rather live banished in any part of the earth with you than I live a sorrowful widow's life without you. And so God bless you, my sweet child and wife, and grant that you may ever be a comfort to your dear dad and husband."
Villiers was 21-years-old when they began their relationship as lovers nine years before this letter referred to the "marriage" of the two men. He was described as "well-built and athletic," with "startling...good looks."
Although the king had a wife and seven children, he slept in his own bedroom and officially appointed Villiers as "Gentleman of the Bedchamber." King James told his royal council: "Christ had his John and I have my George."
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1687 in Japan, the book Great Mirror of Male Love described several unions, including two long-time lovers, now in their sixties:
"Mondo was sixteen, Han'emon nineteen when they made their bond of love...
***
"Mondo was now 63 and Han'emon 66. Their love for each other had not changed since the days of their youth; neither of them had gazed at a woman's face in his life.
"Han'emon still thought of Mondo as a boy of sixteen. Though his hair was thinning and had turned completely white..."
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1707 in England, an Anglican minister in Cheshire County began performing same-sex marriages for female couples and recorded the ceremonies in the parish record.
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1711 in Quebec, Canada, Frenchman Joseph Lafitau described the "special friendships among young men" in native tribes which "admit no suspicion of apparent vice, albeit there is, or may be, much real vice."
Nevertheless, he said that "the parents are the first to encourage them and to respect their rights." He said that these male friendships "are instituted in almost the same manner from one end of [French] America to the other."
Decades before and after this statement, other French observers identified the "real vice" in these male friendships among the Indians:
"most of them are addicted to sodomy."
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By 1728 in London, England, same-sex marriages for male couples were being performed by non-ministers in what we would call "gay bars," after which the male couples called each other "special Sweetheart" or "Husband."
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1730 in Holland, two lovers were arrested (apparently after a neighbor reported them to the police). During the separate trials of Lourens and Hermanus, these young men testified that they had made "a written agreement which they called `contract of marriage,' which promised that they would have sex with [someone else] only when they had each other's consent." The Dutch authorities executed them both, and that same year also killed male couples who testified that their sexual relationships were "based on strict monogamy."
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1798 in Tahiti, ship's captain James Wilson wrote that young men called Mahus dressed as women "and seek the courtship of men the same as women do, nay, are more jealous of the men who cohabit with them, and always refuse to sleep with women."
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1800 in Holland, while talking with his friends, "a man matter-of-factly alternated between calling his lover `his husband' and `his wife.'"
Two years later, his Dutch boyfriend wrote to Jan van Weert:
"Thou art faithful to me until death; who will separate us[?] nobody but the will of The Heavenly Father and we are tied in love forever."
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In 1804 Russian explorer Gavriel Davydov ended a year of residence in the Aleutian Islands:
"There are here, on Kodiak, men with tatooed chins, who perform only female work, live with women, and like them, often have two men [in marriage]. Such men are known as akhutschik. They are not despised but rather enjoy honor in the communities and are mostly magicians [i.e., shamans]. The Koniag who has an akhutschik instead of a wife is even considered as being lucky."
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1804, during the Louis and Clark expedition, Nicholas Biddle observed that among the Indians near the Mississippi River, "if a boy shows any symptoms of effeminacy or girlish inclinations[,] he is put among the girls, dressed in their way, brought up with them, & sometimes married to men...I have seen them--the French call them Birdashes."
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1810 in England, Reverend John Church began performing marriages for male couples in London. The ceremonies occurred in what we would now call a "gay bar."
This continued until 1816, when he was imprisoned for attempted "buggery."
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1817 in Iraq, during his visit to Baghdad, James S. Buckingham was astonished to discover that his guide Ismael had a male lover, whose father regarded him as a son-in-law. Ismael gave a lengthy explanation of their union, after which Buckingham concluded:
"I could no longer doubt the existence in the East of an affection for male youths, of as pure and honourable a kind as that which is felt in Europe for those of the other sex."
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1824 in England, Anne Lister wrote that she and her female companion Marianna Lawton established their relationship with "no priest but love."
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Shortly after 1826 in California, Catholic priest Geronimo Boscana wrote about his experiences at Mission San Juan Capistrano:
"One of the many singularities that prevailed among these Indians was that of marrying males with males...and on the day of the wedding a grand feast was given."
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1835 in Russia, 36-year-old Alexander Pushkin wrote:

Sweet boy, gentle boy,
Don't be ashamed. You are mine forever:
The same rebellious fire is in both of us,
We are living one life.
I am not afraid of mockery:
Between us, the two have become one.
We are precisely like a double nut
Under a single shell.
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1846 in Australia, a convict wrote a letter to "Dear Jack," who had apparently been released from prison:
"The only thing that grieves me[,] love[,] is when i think of the pleasant nights we have had together. I hope you wont fall in love with no other man when i am dead[.] I remain your True and loving[,] affectionate Lover."
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1846 in Wyoming, Francis Parkman described the friendship of two Sioux Indian males, a 16-year-old named Hail-Storm "with a handsome face, and light, active proportions," and his older companion, named The Rabbit:
Although the teenager joined with the women in cooking meals, he was also a hunter, and "wore his red blanket dashingly over his left shoulder, painted his cheeks every day with vermilion, and hung pendants of shells in his ears." He and his older friend "were inseparable; they ate, slept, and hunted together, and shared with one another almost all that they possessed. If there be anything that deserves to be called romantic in the Indian character, it is to be sought for in friendships such as this, which are common among many of the prairie tribes."
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In 1853 anthropologist Johann Georg von Hahn published his observation of male-male unions among Orthodox Christians in Albania. The male-couples took the eucharist together at church. These teenage "pacts of brotherhood" involved discreet sexual relations prior to heterosexual marriage, if they chose to marry.
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1879 in Australia, 21-year-old ex-convict Jim Nesbit was killed during a shoot-out between his gang and the rancher they were robbing. According to a witness, the gang's 34-year-old leader Andrew Scott "wept over him like a child, laid his head upon his breast, and kissed him passionately."
The two men had met before their release from prison and lived together several years before this failed robbery. Now on death-row without his friend, Scott wore "a ring made of Nesbit's hair" and referred to their love in numerous letters he wrote, including these statements: "Nesbit and I were united by every tie which could bind human friendship" and "my fondest hope is to be with him in Eternity." Before his execution, Scott arranged to be buried in the same grave with Nesbit. He paid for a single gravestone to list their names, with the word "separated," followed by the date of Nesbit's death, and the word "united," followed by the date of Scott's execution.
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1882 in Arizona, ethnologist Washington Matthews observed Navajo men performing "The Mountain Chant." Dressed as a hunter and his wife, two males discussed their relationship and the hunter's suspicions that his male wife was having sex with another man.
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Beginning 1889 in Australia, various anthropologists reported that the Aborigines practiced man-boy marriage "until the older man marries" a wife.
This prehistoric, traditional practice continued for another hundred years.
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In the 1890s Russian anthropologist Vladimir Bogoraz observed same-sex marriages among those known as "soft men" in Siberia:
"Thus he has all the young men he could wish for striving to obtain his favor. From these he chooses his lover, and after a time takes a husband. The marriage is performed with the usual rites, and I must say that it forms quite a solid union, which often lasts till the death of one of the parties."
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In 1904 George Steindorff published his observations about a Berber-speaking tribe occupying the town of Siwa in the Libyan desert of western Egypt:
"The feast of [a man] marrying a boy was celebrated with great pomp, and the money paid [as a dowry] for a boy sometimes amounted to fifteen pounds, while the money paid for a woman was a little over one pound..."
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In 1904 anthropologist Guenther Tessmann wrote about long-term unions between males in Cameroon, West Africa:
"Among the Pangwe, it is called, for instance, `wealth medicine'... [because] it is believed that the two partners become rich."
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1907 in South Africa, an official report observed that it was common for the black men who worked in the country's mines to enter into marriages with teenage mine workers.
These "mine marriages" continued until the boys were in their mid-twenties, when they took teenage boys as "wives." Anthropologists found that these relationships were "taken for granted by women (including wives) and [by the tribal] elders at home." This practice continued to the end of the twentieth century.
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In 1912 Swiss Presbyterian missionary Henri Junod described same-sex marriage among the miners of Mozambique, Africa. The "boy-wife...received a wedding feast, and his elder brother received brideprice [i.e., a dowry]." Junod added that some of the "boy-wives" were older than twenty.
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1919 in Rhode Island, although he was trying to avoid punishment by a Navy court martial, a sailor named Rogers volunteered that he "developed a steady relationship with another man" he had met at the YMCA. Rogers called him "husband."
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1924, shortly after 22-year-old Harvard professor F.O. Matthiessen and 42-year-old painter Russell Cheney began their twenty-one-year relationship, the younger man wrote:
"Marriage! What a strange word to be applied to two men! Can't you hear the hell-hounds of society baying in full pursuit behind us? But that's just the point. We are beyond society....
"And so we have a marriage that was never seen on land or sea--and surely not in Tennyson's poet's dream. It is a marriage that demands nothing and gives everything. It does not limit the affections of the two parties, it gives their scope greater radiance and depth."
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1926 in Central Africa, E.E. Evans-Pritchard began a three-year study of the Azande tribe in southern Sudan. He described the same-sex marriages among its warriors:
One boy-wife told him that the "relatives of a boy escorted him (when he was married) in the same way they escorted a bride (on her marriage) to her husband." The anthropologist noted that this "relationship was, for so long as it lasted, a legal union on the model of a normal marriage." These boy-wives were "between about twelve and twenty years of age. When they ceased to be boys they joined the companies of warriors to which their at-one-time husbands belonged and took boys to wives on their own account."
For the next fifty years, "woman-woman marriage--in which one woman pays brideprice to acquire a husband's rights to another woman" were "documented in more than thirty African populations, including at least nine Bantu-speaking groups in present-day southern Africa and Botswana."
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In 1934 anthropologist A. Bernard Deacon described the male-male marriages in New Hebrides (now Vanuatu) in the South Pacific:
As each boy reached puberty, his father selected a male adult as a "guardian" who became the boy's "husband" and had "complete sexual rights over his boy." Until the boy became old enough to be a husband in his own marriage, the man and boy were inseparable. If one died, the other went into formal mourning.
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1938 in California, adolescent Reid Rasmussen met same-aged Calvin Cottam in the deacons quorum of their LDS ward:
"The moment we met each other, we both knew that there was a chemistry between us that no twelve-year-old could explain." They soon became lovers, and sixty-one years later Calvin died in the arms of his companion. Reid commented: "Throughout our years together, we always made a commitment that not only would we share our lives together here on Earth, but we would also spend an eternity in the hereafter and be reunited there forever."
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In 1943 anthropologists Eileen Jensen Krige and Jacob Daniel Krige described the Lovandu tribe of Lesotho in South Africa where the queen "had wives, indeed, a harem" of wives.
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1953 in Los Angeles, California, a cover story of the "homophile" publication One Magazine promoted "Homosexual Marriage."
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  1. . Claude J. Summers, ed., The Gay and Lesbian Literary Heritage: A Reader's Companion to the Writers and their Works from Antiquity to the Present (New York: Holt, 1995), 330 (for conservative date of 1600 B.C. and for quotes, including "as a woman" and "as one veils the bride"); Cassell's Encyclopedia of Queer Myth, Symbol, and Spirit, ed. Randy P. Coma, David Hartfield Sparks, and Mariya Sparks (London: Cassell, 1997), 159 (for "as a woman"), 160 (for play-on-words); George E. Haggerty, Gay Histories and Cultures: An Encyclopedia (New York: Garland Publishing, 2000), 403 (for most complete version being in 1700 B.C. and for "like a wife"); Wayne R. Dynes, Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 2 vols. (New York: Garland, 1990), 1:479 (that earliest versions were prior to 2000 B.C., and for play-on-words discussion).
  2. . Dynes, Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, 1:497 (for date); John Boswell, Same-Sex Unions in Premodern Europe (New York: Villard/Random House, 1994), 61 (for quote).
  3. . E.C. Marchant, Xenophon: Scriptura Minora (London: William Heinemann; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1956), xxii (for his writing "The Constitution of the Lacedaemonians" sometime between 378-371 B.C.), 147 (for quote). Lacedaemonia was an ancient reference to the city-state of Sparta.
  4. . Steve Hogan and Lee Hudson, Completely Queer (New York: Henry Holt, 1998), 601 (for 338 B.C. defeat and reference to "couples"); Summers, Gay and Lesbian Literary Heritage, 347 (for Plutarch's "army of lovers" quote); Haggerty, Gay Histories and Cultures, 878 ("150 pairs of male lovers"); B.R. Burg, ed., Gay Warriors: A Documentary History from the Ancient World to the Present (New York: New York University Press, 2002), 7 (for establishment of the Theban Band in 378 B.C.).
  5. . Brett Hinsch, Passions of the Cut Sleeve: The Male Homosexual Tradition in China (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990), 24.
  6. . Boswell, Same-Sex Unions in Premodern Europe, 80 (for text of first poem); Hogan and Hudson, Completely Queer, 602 (for date); Patrick Higgins, A Queer Reader: 2500 Years of Male Homosexuality (New York: The Press/W.W. Norton, 1993), 31 (for the last poem quoted here).
  7. . Boswell, Same-Sex Unions in Premodern Europe, 81 (for text); Hubert Creekmore, The Satires of Juvenal (New York: Mentor Book/New American Library, 1963), vii (for date)
  8. . Hinsch, Passions of the Cut Sleeve, 68 (for their relationship), 70 (for quotes from poem).
  9. . Gary P. Leupp, Male Colors: The Construction of Homosexuality in Tokugawa Japan (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 233n62 (for details of coffin), passim (for stories of suicide by a Samurai warrior after the death of his male lover).
  10. . Boswell, Same-Sex Unions in Premodern Europe, 255.
  11. . Boswell, Same-Sex Unions in Premodern Europe, 301 (for quote, emphasis in original).
  12. . Michael Rocke, Forbidden Friendships: Homosexuality and Male Culture in Renaissance Florence (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), 171.
  13. . Tsuneo Watanabe and Jun'ichi Iwata, The Love of the Samurai: A Thousand Years of Japanese Homosexuality, trans. D.R. Roberts (London: GMP Publishers, 1989), 109 (for writings by Ijiri Chusuke).
  14. . Rocke, Forbidden Friendships, 172 (for circumstances of Carlo di Bernardo d'Antonio and Michele di Bruno in 1497), 309n140 (for their punishment).
  15. . Leupp, Male Colors, 53-54 (for details of contract between Takeda Shingen and Kasuga Gensuke).
  16. . Francisco Guerra, The Pre-Columbian Mind (London: Seminar Press, 1971), 67 (for 1542 date), 70 (for comment by Bartolome de Las Casas: "Some parents provided their youngsters with a boy to use him for a woman"); also Cassell's Encyclopedia of Queer Myth, Symbol, and Spirit, 229 (for my quote from later observation by Juan de Torquemada).
  17. . Donald M. Frame, trans., Montaigne's Travel Journal (San Francisco: North Point Press/Stanford University Press, 1983), 90-91 (for entry of 18 March 1581, referring to Rome's church of San Giovanni Porta Latina, plus comment on page 91: "Eight or nine Portuguese of this fine sect were burned" at the stake).
  18. . Jonathan Ned Katz, Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A. (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1976), 610-11; also Katz, Gay/Lesbian Almanac: A New Documentary (New York: Harper & Row, 1983), 25.
  19. . Higgins, A Queer Reader, 79 (for text of letter); Rictor Norton, ed., My Dear Boy: Gay Love Letters Through the Centuries (San Francisco: Leyland Publications, 1998), 65 (for age and marriage of Villiers), 67 (for same text); William McElwee, The Wisest Fool in Christendom: The Reign of King James I and VI (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1958), 213 (for King James meeting Villiers as a student at Cambridge University), 214 (for Villiers as "the last and greatest love of his life"; for his being "wellbuilt and athletic and his good looks, though startling, were in no way womanish"), 218 (for Villiers appointment as "Gentleman of the Bedchamber"), 233 (James said: "Christ had his John, and I have my George"); Antonia Fraser, King James VI of Scotland, I of England (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1973), 53 (for his wife and children), 165 (met Villiers in 1614), 168 (he told his Council in 1617: "Christ had his John, and I have my George").
  20. . Ihara Saikaku, The Great Mirror of Male Love, trans. by Paul Gordon Schalow (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1990), 4 (for 1687 publication), 181 (for quote).
  21. . Rictor Norton, Mother Clap's Molly House: The Gay Subculture in England, 1700-1830 (London: GMP, 1992).
  22. . Katz, Gay American History, 289 (for the 1711 quote from Joseph Lafitau), also 611n7 (for 1692 statement by Louis Armand de Lom d'Arce de Lahontan that all Indians living near the Mississippi "are strangely given to sodomy"), 291 (for 1751 observation by Jean Bernard Bossu that "most of them are addicted to sodomy").
  23. . Norton, Mother Clap's Molly House: The Gay Subculture in England, 1700-1830, 100-01.
  24. . Theo van der Meer, "Sodomy and the Pursuit of a Third Sex in the Early Modern Period," in Gilbert Herdt, ed., Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History (New York: Zone Books, 1994), 164 (for quote about the case); Theo van der Meer, "The Persecutions of Sodomites in Eighteenth-Century Amsterdam: Changing Perceptions of Sodomy," in Kent Gerard and Gert Hekma, eds., The Pursuit of Sodomy: Male Homosexuality in Renaissance and Enlightenment Europe (New York: Haworth Press, 1989), 289 (for execution of lovers Lourens and Hermanus, with variation of above quote about their contract); Dirk Jaap Noordam, "Sodomy in the Dutch Republic, 1600-1725," in Gerard and Hekma, Pursuit of Sodomy, 217 (for trials in Leeuworden, which discovered that male-male "relations [there] were based on strict monogamy").
  25. . Katz, Gay American History, 647 (for quote from James Wilson, which Katz dated as July 1799, but originally from Wilson's A Missionary Voyage...1796-98 [London, 1799], 200); also Bengt Danielsson, Love in the South Seas, trans F.H. Lyon (New York: Dell Publishing, 1956), 179.
  26. . Van der Meer, "Sodomy and the Pursuit of a Third Sex in the Early Modern Period," in Herdt, Third Sex, Third Gender, 163 (for 1800 case); van der Meer, "Persecutions of Sodomites in Eighteenth-Century Amsterdam," in Gerard and Hekma, Pursuit of Sodomy, 289 (for letter used in 1802 case of Jan van Weert)
  27. . Stephen O. Murray, "The Traditional Kodiak and Aleutian Islanders' Non-Sacralized, Trans-Generational, Trans-Gender Role," in Murray, ed., Oceanic Homosexualities (New York: Garland Publishing, 1992), 345, emphasis in original.
  28. . Katz, Gay American History, 293 (for statement by Nicholas Biddle), also see source note for my 1711 entry.
  29. . Norton, Mother Clap's Molly House: The Gay Subculture in England, 1700-1830, 204 (for 1810 marriages), 208-09 (for 1816 conviction).
  30. . Stephen O. Murray, "Some Nineteenth-Century Reports of Islamic Homosexualities," in Murray and Will Roscoe, eds., Islamic Homosexualities: Culture, History, and Literature (New York: New York University Press, 1997), 205-07 (for situation), 207 (for quote from Buckingham).
  31. . Helena Whitbread, ed., No Priest But Love: The Journals of Anne Lister from 1824-1826 (New York: New York University Press, 1992).
  32. . Katz, Gay American History, 614n30 (for manuscript autobiography of Friar Geronimo Boscana).
  33. . Winston Leyland, Gay Roots: Twenty Years of Gay Sunshine: An Anthology of Gay History, Sex, Politics & Culture (San Francisco: Gay Sunshine Press, 1991), 649 (for dating and text); Stephen Coote, ed., The Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse, rev. ed. (London: Penguin, 1986), 198 (same poem).
  34. . Robert Dessaix, ed., Australian Gay and Lesbian Writing: An Anthology (Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1993), 20 (for unsigned letter by unidentified prisoner).
  35. . Katz, Gay American History, 303-04 (for Parkman's 1826 statement).
  36. . Stephen O. Murray, "Male Homosexuality in Ottoman Albania," in Murray and Roscoe, Islamic Homosexualities, 188, for the Orthodox Christian priests blessing the male couples; Paul Naecke, "On Homosexuality In Albania," [translation of the article's German publication in 1908] International Journal of Greek Love 1 ([1965]): 40-43 (for an undated letter which Naecke says [page 43] "confirms [ca. 1883] what [Johann Georg von] Hahn had observed in the country approximately 30 years before him"), 40 (for this late-19th century observation: "It is further true that pacts of brotherhood, when they occur between Christians, are blessed by the papas in church, both partners receiving the eucharist"), 40 (for this later author's emphasis that Hahn was wrong in claiming that these male-male relationships were non-sexual), 46n2 (citing Hahn's Albanesische Studien as published at Vienna in 1853).
  37. . Garry Wotherspoon, "Moonlight and...Romance?: The death-cell letters of Captain Moonlight and some of their implications," Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society 78, Pts. 3-4 (1992): 80 (for death of Jim Nesbit and death-sentence of Andrew Scott, alias "Captain Moonlight"), 81 (for their meeting in prison and living together in Melbourne after their release), 83 (for letter about "with him in Eternity"), 84 (for "kissed him passionately"), 85 (for Scott's ring, being buried in same grave, and inscriptions on their joint headstone), 87 (for letter about "every tie," emphasis in original).
  38. . Martin Duberman, ed., About Time: Exploring the Gay Past, rev. ed. (New York: Meridian Books/Penguin, 1991), 50-53 (for the previously suppressed observations of Washington Matthews).
  39. . Stephen O. Murray, "Age-Stratified Homosexuality: An Introduction," in Murray, Oceanic Homosexualities, 4-8 (with quote on page 6).
  40. . Waldemar Bogoras, "The Chukchee," Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History 11 (1904-07): 451; also Stephen O. Murray, "Vladimir Bogoraz's Account of Chukchi Transformed Shamans," in Murray, Oceanic Homosexualities, 299n4 (for his Russian name and his first publishing in 1900).
  41. . Stephen O. Murray, "The Will Not to Know: Islamic Accommodations of Male Homosexuality," in Murray and Roscoe, Islamic Homosexualities, 40.
  42. . Stephen O. Murray and Will Roscoe, eds., Boy-Wives and Female Husbands: Studies of African Homosexualities (New York: Palgrave/St. Martin's Press, 1998), 156 (for observations by Guenther Tessmann), 348 (for Tessmann first publishing about the Pangwe in 1904).
  43. . T. Dunbar Moodie, Vivienne Ndatshe, and British Sibuyi, "Migrancy and Male Sexuality On the South African Gold Mines," in Martin Bauml Duberman,
  44. Martha Vicinus, and George Chauncey, Jr., eds., Hidden From History: Reclaiming the Gay and Lesbian Past (New York: New American Library, 1989), 413-414, 567n14; also quote of observations in 1993 of the continued practice of these mine marriages in Glen Elder, "Of Moffies, Kaffirs, and Perverts: male homosexuality and the discourse of moral order in the apartheid state," in David Bell and Gill Valentine, eds., Mapping Desire: geographies of sexualities (London: Routledge, 1995), 59.
  45. . "Southern Africa: Overview," in Murray and Roscoe, Boy-Wives and Female Husbands, 178-79, citing (337) Henry Junod, Life of a South African Tribe (1912; 1927).
  46. . George Chauncey, Jr., "Christian Brotherhood or Sexual Perversion?: Homosexual Identities and the Construction of Sexual Boundaries in the World War I Era," in Duberman, Vicinus, and Chauncey, Hidden From History: Reclaiming the Gay and Lesbian Past, 300.
  47. . Louis Hyde, ed., Rat & the Devil: Journal Letters of F.O. Matthiessen and Russell Cheney (Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1978), 3 (for deaths), 11 (for age), 29 (for September 1924 letter).
  48. . E.E. Evans-Pritchard, "Sexual Inversion among the Azande," American Anthropologist 72 (Dec. 1970): 1428-29; Eva Gillies, "Introduction," 1976 edition of Witchcraft, Oracles, and Magic Among the Azande, xv (for the years of Evans-Pritchard's fieldwork among the Azande in southern Sudan); Murray and Roscoe, Boy-Wives and Female Husbands.
  49. . A. Bernard Deacon, Malekula: A Vanishing People in the New Hebrides (London: George Routledge and Sons, 1934), 260-61.
  50. . Reid Rasmussen, "My Life With Calvin," in Dale Colclasure and David Jensen, eds., Journeys Across the Rainbow: Inspirational Stories for the Human Race (Boulder, CO: Rainbow Pride Press, 2000), 2 (for first quote), 5 (for second quote), 6 (for Calvin's death in 1999).
  51. . Murray and Roscoe, Boy-Wives and Female Husbands.
    . Cover title "Homosexual Marriage?" One Magazine (Aug. 1953).